The Mosaic Mueseum of Ma'arret Al-Nu'man

The Mosaic Museum of Ma’arret alNu’man is housed in a khan built by the Ottoman Murat Pasha, Custodian of the Sultanate Treasury in 1595 AD.

The khan was built as a hostel and a takieh (shelter for feeding the poor). The building is considered one of the best khans built at that time in terms of beauty and solidness, located in the eastern part of Ma’arret alNu’man, in the middle of AbulA’laa St. not far from Khan Asa’ad Pacha alA’zem, with a small garden in between and a statue of the renowned poet AbulA’laa alMa’arri, with official buildings surrounding it on the other sides.

 The building is made of local white lime stone. It has four perpendicular wings and towers on the roofs and elegant arched porticos of high arches and arched ceilings. The façade is 70m long while the depth of the building is 80m.

Each wing is 15m wide with a corridor separating between each two wings and leading to the utilities. Porticoes surround an open air spacious courtyard with a pond in the center. South of the building stands the mosque with a hemispherical dome. In the west there is a Turkish bath house with its traditional sections, in the north there is the bakery of the takieh and depots of grains, as well as the water reservoir which brings water through clay pipes into the khan and the mosque. All in all the area of the khan is 7000 sm.

Totola Fortified City

The city of Totol, now named Tall alBeia, was founded north east of ancient Raqqa, at the confluence of the Euphrates-Balikh Rivers, among green fields, on a 600-700m high hill.

The hill attracted the attention of many people who started excavating clandestinely anticipating finding important treasures, actions which affected the features and landmarks of the hill.

Many travelers, scientists, and foreigners visited the hill at the beginning of the past century, wrote about in their memoirs and researchers.

Kingdom of Nabada

Kingdom of NabadaTall Beydar- alHasakeh

Historical site of Tall Beydar lies on a fertile plain 35km north of al- Hasakeh City on the main road of Derbaseyeh- alHasakeh. It seems that a river used to run near the Tall. A joint Syrian-European mission headed by Dr. Antoine Suleiman, a Syrian archeologist, and Dr. Mark Lupo, European, started archaeological excavations there in 1992.

Results of excavations proved that the Tall was settled in 4500BC, an era known as the Age of alUbeid, and reached its culmination in the third millennium, between 2800- 2200 BC, in the age of early dynasties when a local kingdom was established around an urban center and later became an integrated city.

Excavations of recent years revealed that the Tall hosted the local Kingdom of Nabada, an early city-kingdom formed in the «Syrian Jezira» which assumed a distinguished administrative and cultural position.

Phoenicians in the Eyes of Modern Archaeological Studies

In its January 2010 issue «National Geographic Magazine» published an article written by Rick Gore about an American geneticist, Spencer Wells and a Lebanese scientist, Pierre Zalloua, tracing the origins of the Phoenicians by collecting samples of DNA from peoples from different parts of the world where our ancestors reached 5000 years ago.

The study proved that old inhabitants of the Syrian Coast were mentioned in old texts as smart merchants and clever sailors, although our detailed knowledge about them is still limited to a few texts.

Historians refer to them as Canaanites when talking about the culture before 1200 B.C. that is before the destruction of the kingdom of Ugarit (Ras Shamra), mwhile the Greeks said they are the <Phoinikes>, which means the red people, a name that became Phoenicians — after their word for a prized reddish purple cloth the Phoenicians exported. They, themselves did not like the name Phoenicians, rather they described themselves as Citizens of the Ports   from which they set their sales like Ugarit, Amrit, Arwad, Byblos, Sidon and Tyre.

Mar Maron

Mar Maron lived in a period full of religious and political events which accompanied the spread of Christianity . Christian monks were highly influenced by the successive and concurrent events especially after Roman Emperor Constantine had issued the famous decree of Milan 313AD which allowed Christians to declare their new religion publicly and recognized Christianity as a state religion.

In his book "History of Maronites", issued in the eighties of the past century, Lebanese father BotrosDhaw said: "Since the start of Christian era and until 313AD, Christians suffered from persecution. One day, exactly at sunset, Constantine, saw the image of a cross drawn in the sky by sun rays and "With this you will win" written near it. In the morning he ordered new banners be made for the army with the sign of the cross on them and he won the battle over his opponent, Emperor Maxentius, in 312AD near Rome. After that he ruled all Europe and issued the declaration of 313AD stopping persecution but short of declaring Christianity as a state religion.