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Temple of Bell Unites the Color of Sky and Earth in Yellow

PALMYRA, (ST) - There is hardly anything in Palmyra only attracts the attention to the city that dazzled the West and the East with its architectural arts, its aesthetic and optical excellence as far as the eye can see, thanks to its rich archaeological buildings, palaces and temples, the most important is Bell, which still remains number one of the most beautiful ruins of the Middle East.

It has been written and said a lot about the temple until it becomes well -known locally and internationally which means that it has taken the right of definition in terms of the archaeological side according to an expression by the tourist guide, Yasmin Shahla.

Mrs. Shahla prefers talking about the temple as she heard of visitors who called it as the Badia (desert) icon. The temple consists of tetragonal- shaped courtyard that is surrounded by a portico with columns of Corinthian capitals lined behind each other in the same manner high and organized in a civilized manner that makes the beholder to it amazed by the consistency of those columns with each to the degree of fondness.

Some of the visitors to the temple feel the importance of mathematics to understand that engineering and innovation in the antiquities of ancestors, said Walid Sa’id, a visitor, who already saw the temple.

“I did not like math but once I visited this temple I began fixing my eyes in those columns and all sides of the temple which take the forms of triangles and so forms and engineering arts  until I began to understand some of the construction of mathematics as if the builder of this great edifice were  aware how the whole world is based on mathematical equation or physical issues that need a long time to understand how to solve them and the need for reflection and patience until we receive our intention,” Mr. Sa’id added.

It is evident that the history of the temple dates back to the first and second centuries AD. It contains a yard, three corridors, a campus and remains of a holy pond still exist, a table and an altar. Apart from being an archaeological valuable site for the amateurs of archeology and history, it is also a tourist catalyst and attracts the attention many people who could feel comfort, quietness and the beauty of life when they visit it, according to Nazir Melchonian of Aleppo.

“When I go to that part of land, I feel as if I was in a legendary and fictitious place, as if I weren’t on the ground because it is located in the desert, sand covers its surroundings and the multiform stones fill its outside yard except for the rays of the sun falls upon as if it were devoted to the temple alone. The one would think that the universe has a sole color, yellow, in the sky and the earth, and even in winter it has a special flavor as the atoms of sand that scatter in the air look like as threads of gold that embrace the columns, at that moment the one feels that he is capable of holding the wind in his hands and making it adapt as he pleases. A feeling you can not be earned only in that beautiful temple,” Mr. Melchonian concluded.

Sh. Kh.

Tel Mohamed Diab

Tel Mohamed Diab is located in the northeast of Syria within the area of the island, in the northern part of ancient Mesopotamia known rich and heavily settled during the third millennium BC. The hill, which is positioned as one of the key locations in the region to the south-west of Maalikis, and broken from the south of the road modern temple, which reaches Elierbeh Qamishli. Ageorh range of hills like Tel Whelan Tel Alrmelan, and to the south of Tel Berri and Tell Brak .The site consists of central Tel and several small hills surrounding it, and the central area of the hill 12 hectares, while the overall area with small hills surrounding 59 hectares.

The results of the excavations clear vision about the early settlement of the site, have been found on many of the breakage pottery dated to the first quarter of the third millennium BC, along with many of the facilities of walls and terraces of milk, as well as it has been detected balls of clay grilled cuneiform signs which indicate the first attempts to start the biblical texts on the site and examples dated on the second half of the third millennium BC.


Source: Discover Syria



Emar was situated on the middle Euphrates in northwest Syria, about 100 km east of Aleppo. Due to its geographical situation connecting Mesopotamia with the Mediterranean coast. The town had a strategic function. Already the earliest mentioning's in writing, namely in the palace archives of Ebla, ca. 2500 BC, and especially in the Mari texts from the 18th century BC, point to the town's importance as traffic junction .

Contrary to its importance as a commercial center, Emar was never the center of a supra-regional power, but was rather awkwardly positioned between rivaling states. The history of Emar can be followed down to the middle of the third millennium BC, or, in archeological terms, down to the Early Bronze Age, when the town came under the influence of the rulers of Ebla and was mentioned in their archives at several instances. For the 13th and the early 12th centuries BC (the Late Bronze Age), there is written documentation from Emar itself and also references in contemporaneous texts from Boazköy/Hattua, Ras Shamra/Ugarit and from Assyria. At that time, the town was part of the Hittite Empire, situated close to the frontier of the rivaling state of Assyria. Emar was subject to the king of Karkami, who represented the Hittite ruler in Syria, a member of the Hittite royal family and the connecting link between Hattua the Hittite capital in central Anatolia, and the Syrian "vassal states."

the Emar texts have mainly been found in private houses. They are, above all, judicial records - concerning, for example, dealings in real estate, marriages, last wills, adoptions - illustrating the private life of the population and, at the same time, showing the consequences of the Hittite conquest for the training of scribes and for society, in general. In the house of a priest, the so-called Temple du Devin (M1), a library was found containing, besides literary and lexical texts in the Mesopotamian tradition, ritual texts for local cults. Particularly noteworthy is the ritual for the installation of the priestess of the weather god. At Emar, archeologists discovered a temple area comprising the sanctuaries of the weathergod Ba'al  and - possibly - of his consort Ashtarte as well as several dwelling-houses dating to the Late Bronze Age (13th and beginning of 12th century BC).


Source: Excavation Emar

Tell Aswad

Tell Aswad, is a large prehistoric, Neolithic Tell, about 5 hectares (540,000 sq ft) in size, located around 48 kilometres (30 mi) from Damascus, on a tributary of the Barada River at the eastern end of the village of Jdeidet el Khass

It was discovered in 1967 by Henri de Contenson who led excavations in 1971-1972.The Aswadian culture found by de Contenson was far too advanced for its calibrated dating than anything else found in the region, and the only example ever found of this culture. Further technical investigation of the lithic series by Frédéric Abbès revealed inconsistencies so it was recently decided to re-excavate in six seasons by the French Permanent Archaeological Mission  El Kowm-Mureybet under the co-direction of  Danielle Stordeur and  Bassam Jamous between 2001-2006. Investigations into the materials found are ongoing at the National Museum of Damascus.

The fieldwork at Tell Aswad has changed the dating system at this site, abolishing the Aswadian period in the(Pre-Pottery Neolithic A)  PPNA (9500-8700 cal BC). The latest research has split the PPNB period into 3; PPNB Ancien from 8700 to 8200 cal BC and the PPNB Moyen from 8200 to 7500 BC. PPNB Récent has been equated with Dunand's "Néolithique ancien de Byblos".

The first PPNB period involved construction of massive earth architecture, layering  soil with reeds to construct walls. The inhabitants of Tell Aswad  invented the  brick on site by modelling earth clods with beds of  reeds, which they then formed raw bricks and eventually dried in later stages. Houses were round from beginning to the end of the settlement, elliptical or polygonal and were partly buried or laid. The orientation of the openings is most often to the East. This conforms with sites in the Southern Levant, whereas Northern Euphrates Valley sites generally display rectangular houses.

Sourse: Archaeological Destinations


Unique, Archaeological Exhibits in Hama National Museum

Archaeological exhibited articles tell stories for hundreds of years of various civilizations that came to power and influence over the central region of Syria. Hama National Museum is filled with the most tremendous group of archaeological sarcophagus which is the most important contents of museums whole world, according to the classifications of archaeologists.

The National Museum contains unique and wide collection of sarcophagus that found at different archaeological sites of the city, including the rare in the world. The museum singled out a special hall to view these discoveries that divided into four forms: pottery, stone, wood and tin coffins.

 Head of the Department of Hama Antiquities, Abdulkader Farzat, said that succession of civilizations on the central region was a key factor in spreading the cultures, philosophies and beliefs that differ from culture to culture and it is reflected through the "cultural and ideological symbols left behind these ruins including cemeteries and sarcophagus, which paves the way for understanding the peoples old ideas about life and death, customs and traditions."

"The main contents of the National Museum in Hama are wooden and stone tombs saved with glass boxes in order to protect them from corrosion as a result of temperature change of humidity or temperature, pointing to ingenuity in design and engineering which demonstrates the sculptor's skill," Mr. Firzat said.

A coffin, with a height of 120 cm rectangular shape, hollow inside and designed of beech, was found in the cemetery dates back to the Roman era, where analysis carbon carried indicates that it was made in the year 20 AD. Mr.Farzat noted to the presence of inscriptions in one of the sides of this coffin and  an embossed sculpture in the that represent two winged gods.

He added that in the opposite side there are two sculptures represent two embossed lions with two opposite faces separated by a head of an ox. The scene shows strength and greatness. The ox in Romanian culture represents force while the lion represents greatness, pointing out that on the front of the coffin, a man's face was engraved putting on his head a headband of bay leaves. This confirms that this coffin contains remains of a senior military commander in the Roman era or that the remains of one of the princes or kings.

The second type of stone coffins is considered an archaeological wealth raises the balance and the status of the museum. The coffins are divided into two parts the first of a large size, only two of this sort, and the other of a small size and there are also two.

Coffins are displayed in the garden of the museum and are considered stone masterpieces of great splendor view due to the accuracy of the handmade and the accuracy of inscriptions that decorate them and date back to the era of Romanian civilization. They were engraved of Palmyrian stone destroyed and refer to the culture, philosophies and beliefs of Palmyra. The first is engraved in the limestone and features with embossed carvings that adorned the faces of two women surrounded by a small plant and 3 young children from the corners and the middle.

The two sides of the coffin represent two faces of two and it is believed to be a god or princess as it was well known  in the culture of Palmyra, while the other coffin it is located at the left of the park is very large and consists of two pieces and date back to the era itself and inside them there are archaeological findings including a small pottery ring and a stone stamp of a black color in addition to beads, bracelets and golden chips, it is believed to be Romanian or rulers kings.

The second section is small in size with a hierarchy head  and there are only two of this sort. They were used for the blessing and placed in the holy places, the first is engraved black basalt stone and the second of white marble stone. The Romanians used those coffins to put the bones of the saints with oils inside them.


Sh. Kh.