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Tel Jenderes

Tel Jenderes  located in depth at which played an important role in linking trade routes between Aleppo and the eastern Aegean world. ThisTel extends from the north - east to the south - west between Mount Simon in the Middle and Mountains in the West. And starts this plain in the north of the Syrian – Turkish border and ends in the south-west at the Mediterranean coast, and is positioned hill Jenderes 5 km from the West Bank of the River Afrin, south-west of the village of modern Jenderes, and covers the hill an area of 400 x 500 square meters, or about 20 hectares and has a height of 20 m.

Studies have shown that Afrin has settled since the early period, during the Paleolithic East   on the slope of Mount Simon, like a cave Aldidria .

The most important investigations that took place in the region are those carried out by the Eastern Institute of Chicago in the thirties of the twentieth century, this investigation has shown that on an equal settlement continuously in Depth easy starting from the Neolithic period, has been playing easy depth commercially important role since the late fourth millennium BC , it has been a conduit for internal roads leading to the coast, which have been up Egypt and Palestine with Anatolia.

Jenderes site by geographical Strabo has named Gendaros, and believes that this site is the same as it was Kinallowa capital of the Kingdom Onki in the first millennium BC, and relying on yearbooks Assyrian, in the year 876 BC. M. Information on the trajectory Assyrian army of Carchemish to Azazum (Azaz), where the army arrived Afrin and across the river in one day, and spent the night on the West Bank, after a one-day path reached Kinallowa. As the distance between Azaz and the river 25 km, the distance between the army camp and similar Kinallowa, and the absence of another site in the area of Afrin apply to him specifications mentioned only Jenderes of the indicates that it was and should capital Kinallowa. It is likely that this site was in the second millennium BC, a follower of the Kingdom of Mukesh foregoing.

The results showed the presence of levels starting from the early second millennium and until the Byzantine era in the sixth century AD, have been detected on the remains of the temple on the eastern side of the site, but  it was due to sabotage installations later ages ,remnants of the palace were also found. on the Middle Bronze Age

A group of pottery and glass breakage and other coins and art finds that dated to the Roman era (260-330 AD) and Hellenistic (about 100 BC).

Pottery and other finds, dated to the Late Bronze Age (Figure 6). It also has been detected foundations of a defensive wall extends 325 m to the north and 100 m to the east as well as the presence of residue gates yet to delve. These actions provided important results with regard to the location that seems to have had an important position during the second millennium BC, although the continuation of excavation work that will shed light on many aspects  of being the center of administrative or religious or city vulnerable huge, on the other hand confirm the hypothesis raised with regard Pttabgah with capital Kinallowa during the second millennium BC.


Source: Discover Syria

Tel Suehat

An archaeological site in the province of Raqqa . On the Euphrates River East, flooded the dam, and was above the ruins of the city of Suehat that live up to the era of ancient bronze (the first half of the thousand BC), a fortified town very important in the latter half of the third millennium BC, then cut off the settlement on this site for a while , and then returned again in the Middle Bronze Age (2100-1600 BC.) In modern Bronze Age (1600-1200 BC). then the Iron Age (1200-500 BC).. In the Hellenistic period (333-64 BC). was an ordinary locations. The researchers divided the site to the levels vary between layers old Bronze Age and Middle Bronze Age, and Hellenistic Period (300-250 BC). Then the Roman eraNational Emergency Mission found in archaeological exploration tenderness 175 artifact in the archaeological site of Tel Suehat west of the Raqa city about 110 kilometers.

found in Tel Suehat the back for the third thousand BC inAbout 175 archaeologies 

good condition which is about blades for arrows, knives, and Mkharz, and beads, andutensils, and pottery jars, rings, bracelets Bronze machines, spindles, and seashell river, cut the bone out drawings of birds and animals, and various writings, and toys for bronze animals, and cylindrical seals polymorphic drawings of geometric shapes and planers bronze, and all belonging to the same historical period.

Source: Discover Syria


Temple of Zeus .. Eternal Building Tells History of a Civilization

SWEIDA, (ST) – Wherever you look round Sweida city, you can see temples and archaeological columns that tell stories about the birth of the history in Syria. Biladusham, including Syria, is the cradle of prophets, civilizations and religions to the whole world. Motifs, ornamentations and inscriptions on the walls and columns must answer the visitor’s questions that he won’t find a reply to them but here and carry to him between their stones, tales that were formulated by man on this earth many centuries ago.

The history and the civilization of Syria, full of antiquities and works of art, will take us this time on a trip to the Temple of Zeus in the town al Mushannaf. It is far from the city of Sweida about 30 km to the northeast of the temple. There are several opinions about the date of its building. According to the German mission’s report in 1991, Freiber Gher said that the temple was built in 41 AD for the god Zeus. The evidence is a Greek inscription written on it entitled “For the safety of the King Akreba and for his return according to the vows, Mr. so- and-so built the patriarchal god Zeus Temple.”

Many decorations and inscriptions dating to the first half of the first century AD indicate that the King Akreba was the local governor of the town of al Mushannaf or Nilla as it was known in the past. The researcher, Michael Kvalovski, indicates through a study to this site in her book “Traces and History of Syria 1989”, that the date of construction dates back to the second half of the first century AD.
The researcher, Jean-Marie Dntzer, emphasizes in his writings that the construction date backs to the first half of the second century AD. The American scientist, Butler mentioned in his book “American Archaeological Exploration in Syria 1899-1900” that the history of the building dates back to 171 AD. The site was inhabited by some local residents and they added some rooms at the beginning of the twentieth century. Some reforms, by Alexander Sears, took place between 222 and 235 AD.

Director of Antiquities and Museums Bureau in Sweida city, Hussein Zeineddin, explained that that the temple takes a rectangular shape, divided into three equal parts. The first part is called Prunaous according to a report by Freiber Gher. This part is located between the opposite columns and the wall of the entrance, pointing  out that it is difficult to imagine the form of this wall, it is clear that a wall was built incorrectly between the columns and it currently contains decorations that may not be originally from the site.

The second and third parts are the holy of holies, the statue chamber. It is divided into two almost equal parts with a basaltic arch and the walls of this section consist of basaltic stones also located on two layers.

The original remaining parts in the northern wall of the temple include the mainstays of the columns, lintels, some building blocks of the outer wall of the temple, the mainstays of the column of the southern corner, indicating that the body of the temple advances from the east of the front tiled yard. Notably deformation inflicted the body of the building such as the modification hit the main wall entrance and distortions hit the northern wall. It is clear that this wall tends to the north and likes a straight piece that spins on a hinge.

“Some of the rooms were added on the basic outline of the temple in the period between 1857, and 1902 AD. A rectangular room was constructed in the east resulting from the north wall and the eastern side was filled with cubic and decorated stones as well as for building new interior divisions in the south and west. This room represents a microcosm of the original inside of the temple and moves to the east. In the south, you can observe an empty corridor leads to a broad room and the temple is surrounded from north, west and south, by walls of the temple itself,” Mr. Zeineddine pointed out.

Concerning the current situation of the temple, Mr. Zeineddine clarified that the eastern part of the temple is built completely with antique architectural pieces that were not positioned in their original place because they were re-built. In this part, which is linked with the temple yard, a room was created and still used today. You can see the northern protruding wall in this side of the lintel till the top edge where a crack can be observed within this protuberance. The crack is 3 cm in width.

Columns of the eastern facade still maintain their original position. The facade consists of two columns including the mainstay and the body of the column. The visitor can observe the existence of two stone pieces of the body of the northern column and one piece in front of the southern column.

In the southern side, you can see the impact of modern buildings on the southern wall of the west side, whereas the wall is still in place until the upper edge of the cornice. Fourteen meters of the southern wall has remained. In the west, the status of the western wall is good including the lintel and the cornice but it suffers from curvature to the inside and the center and reaches its maximum at the top. The northern cornerstone and some square stones have been lost but the bigger part still exists although it suffers a strong outer bending, especially in the eastern part.

Mr. Zeineddine expresses the desire of Antiquities Bureau in acquisition the temple and the adjacent properties and removing parts newly built, in order to show what is left of the temple’s features and collecting the archaeological and architectural pieces dating back to the temple. Many of these pieces are found in the houses as well as inscriptions may be present and to compensate the missing stones that match the specification of the original stones and returning the cornerstone which belongs to the head section of the platform of the place, knowing that it is existed in the nearby between the temple and the pond.

Director of Antiquities and Museums drew senior officials’ attention in Sweida to map out a study to restore the northern wall, which is suffering from a strong bending and can be exposed to collapse at any moment and take necessary measures in order to support and strengthen the stones that form the body of the columns and search for the missing stones from the columns, and it is expected to find them near the site or in the nearby houses to maintain the original columns on the eastern side and the other parts in their places

Sh. Kh.

Iqal … Heritage Profession Struggles for Survival

DAMASCUS, (ST) – (Iqal is a headband made of strong thick strings).  Iqal industry is a traditional one. It is threatened with extinction due to a drop in the number of workers in this field and because the limited number of families who hand it down from generation to generation. This industry has become known as the profession of parents and grandparents.

Ahmed Ramadan, 62 years, one of the prominent makers of Iqal at al Borghleyeh market in old Damascus said that this profession requires only simple tools including thread, a manual machine, wooden mould and a hammer.  He pointed out that the profession is more than 200 years old and it is inherited from his ancestors and he tries to pass it on to his sons after him to keep it from extinction.

Khaled Abu Badr, 45 years, has a long tradition in this profession, where he worked in this profession thirty years ago. He pointed out that we rely on the Syrian string, which is unmatched by another thread in the world and it was brought from Aleppo. But now, we rely on the string imported from other countries.

Abu Badr clarified that the profession is almost extinct and very few people who want to learn it because it is tiring and causes pains in the back and spine. This profession requires long hours of standing behind the machine and it also causes injuries to the limbs.

Abu Badr said that the price of Iqal ranges from 100 to 500 Syrian pounds according to the quality of the thread.

Sh. Kh

Lattakia … Civilized, Archaeological Storage Reflects its Great Location

 ST - On its territory, the first world's civilizations originated. Knowledge, culture and the first alphabet spread from it to all countries. From its inside, important archaeological monuments distributed to reflect the greatness of their locations and eras that rolled on its territory and the beauty of its landmarks and splendor. It is Lattakia, which remained fixed despite of the challenges of time and the elements of harsh nature.

 In light of archaeological finds, during the past years, in Lattakia, the discovered cemeteries, that included graves of people who had the greatest impact on the emergence of these civilizations and building the monuments, have become the focus of attention of the world.

Director of the Antiquities Department at the governorate, Dr. Jamal Haider, pointed out that Lattakia owns an important archaeological storage of discoveries and every year more of them are discovered.

 He referred that burying places were discovered in the ground, including an archaeological vault that was discovered in 1997, it is 250 meters to the south of the Mee’net Albeida. Its contents and model are consistent with the vaults discovered in Ugharit.

“According to data excavation, the great finds, which the vault contained dates to the thirteenth century BC, indicate that the number of those buried persons in it is about ten. According to archaeological data, it is believed that the vault was devoted to a family of a good social position. Discoveries found in the vault indicate that there were good relations and mutual influences with Egypt, Greece, Cyprus and Anatolia,” Dr.Haider clarified.

The vault is located two meters below ground level where it was built with dressed stone of eight building blocks, the lower line was built vertically and the higher one tend to inside toward the surface, which was covered by seven stone slabs which constitute the lock of the vault. The entrance to the vault from the south is accessible by two steps that lead to a narrow tiled vestibule leads to the door of the vault, and it is the access to the lobby of a rectangular tomb and there are five holes distributed to its walls and given numbers from 1 to 5.

After the excavation works, more than one hundred and fifty archaeological finds were discovered, including full parts, others were restored and others could not be restored. The finds were potteries, jars of various shapes and sizes, pitchers, plates, bowls, a doll in the shape of an ox and other in the shape of a dog, stone and calcareous finds, beads for decoration, calcareous vase, incomplete utensils, small fractions of a skeleton, decorated bones, bronze bowls and arrowheads used as weights for fishing nets, Dr. Haider added.

 “Two carved coffins of sandstone were discovered in the neighborhood of al -Sheikh Dahir area at the center of Lattakia city. Motifs were carved into the facade and the sides of the first coffin while the back was left without decoration to the artist who would engrave the name of the person who would be buried inside the coffin,” Director of the Antiquities Department noted.

“The second coffin is the first of its kind in Syria in terms of size. Semi-circular wreaths in the shape of roses, beads, clusters of grapes, fruit, bay, pine and vine leaves were engraved on the coffin. Four embossed heads of bulls were separating among the wreaths and within these three wreaths there were three bust images of three girls and their faces were filled with grief and sorrow. The style of sculpture on these coffins was caring about pictorial decoration that prevailed in the reign of Antonyen Emperors during the second century AD,” Dr. Haider clarified.

According to Dr. Haider, a family vault was discovered in 1967. It is a large room dug in a block of sandstone which forms the geological basis of Lattakia city and despite the vandalism happened inside the vault traces of five holes engraved on the walls of the vault still exist. The holes were used for placing lamps, funerary offerings and vows.

Inside the vault, which dates back to the period of the Romanian era, there were landmarks of an incomplete church dug amid the lobby of the vault. The church is small and a nine- step stair dug in the rock leads to it. There is a temple in its northern wall and at the bottom of the eastern wall there are landmarks of a circular pond built of small stones and it is probably the font of baptism and its middle is covered with five rectangular stone slabs indicating that they are landmarks of a church that has not completed yet.

In al -Sijin district in 2005, a family vault was discovered. It was carved in a rock block at a depth of more than two meters underground where a large group of archaeological finds were found. They were distributed to the walls of the vault. The finds are collections of potteries, metal, glass and utensils intended for everyday use including medium and large jars which were used to transport liquids from Syria to the Mediterranean countries before two thousand years ago in addition to pottery and glass bottles, various metal pieces of different shapes, sizes and uses. These discoveries formed an archeological integrated collection of great artistic and museum value.

Sh. Kh