'Curiosity' exposes low CO2 level in Mars' primitive atmosphere

The CO2 level in Mars' primitive atmosphere 3.5 billion years ago was too low for sediments, such as those found, to be deposited. This and other conclusions are drawn from a paper written with the participation of researchers according to Science daily.

The area Curiosity has been analysing since 2012 is composed primarily of sedimentary sequences deposited at the bottom of a lake 3.5 billion years ago. These sediments contain various secondary minerals, such as clays or sulphates, which indicate that the primitive surface was in contact with liquid water.

What happened to the sun over 7,000 years ago?

An international team led by researchers, has identified a new type of solar event and dated it to the year 5480 BC; they did this by measuring carbon-14 levels in tree rings, which reflect the effects of cosmic radiation on the atmosphere at the time. They have also proposed causes of this event, thereby extending knowledge of how the sun behaves according to Science daily.

When the activity of the sun changes, it has direct effects on the earth. For example, when the sun is relatively inactive, the amount of a type of carbon called carbon-14 increases in the earth's atmosphere. Because carbon in the air is absorbed by trees, carbon-14 levels in tree rings actually reflect solar activity and unusual solar events in the past.

'Startling' Dinosaur Protein Discovery

Ancient proteins dating back 195 million years have been found inside a dinosaur bone according to BBC.

The discovery pushes back the oldest evidence for preserved proteins by 100 million years.

Scientists have also found traces of a mineral that probably came from the blood of the early Jurassic dinosaur.

Soft tissues provide new insights into the biology of dinosaurs and how they evolved.

They are rarely preserved during the process of fossilisation, during which bones and teeth are slowly transformed into "rock".

Scientists find 'oldest human ancestor'

Researchers have discovered the earliest known ancestor of humans - along with a vast range of other species according to BBC.

They say that fossilised traces of the 540-million-year-old creature are "exquisitely well preserved".

The microscopic sea animal is the earliest known step on the evolutionary path that led to fish and - eventually - to humans.

Researchers reveal ancient flying reptile with a mouth so big it could swallow a human whole

Researchers have discovered a new fossil of a massive flying reptile that could eat its prey whole according to Daily mail.

The fossil was found in the Transylvania region of Romania and is believed to be 70 million years old.

The fossil is of Hatzegopteryx: A reptile with a short, massive neck and a jaw that's about half a meter wide - large enough to swallow a small human or child.

Hatzegopteryx was a pterosaur - a flying reptile that existed at around the time of the dinosaurs.