Scientists Reveal That Jupiter's Moon Ganymede May Support Life

Scientists have revealed that Jupiter's moon Ganymede may possess ice and liquid oceans stacked up in several layers - raising the chances that this distant icy world harbored life.

As club sandwiches go, this undoubtedly is the biggest one in the solar system.

Scientists said on Friday that Jupiter's moon Ganymede may possess ice and liquid oceans stacked up in several layers much like the popular multilayered sandwich. They added that this arrangement may raise the chances that this distant icy world harbors life.

Brain circuits involved in emotion discovered by neuroscientists

New research by the University of Bristol, published in the Journal of Physiology, has identified a chain of neural connections which links central survival circuits to the spinal cord, causing the body to freeze when experiencing fear.

Understanding how these central neural pathways work is a fundamental step towards developing effective treatments for emotional disorders such as anxiety, panic attacks and phobias.

An important brain region responsible for how humans and animals respond to danger is known as the PAG (periaqueductal grey), and it can trigger responses such as freezing, a high heart rate, increase in blood pressure and the desire for flight or fight.

Diamonds Exist In The Icy Mountains Of Antarctica, say Scientists

Scientists say they have discovered compelling evidence that diamonds exist in the icy mountains of Antarctica.

The researchers have identified a type of rock in the permanently frozen region that is known to contain the precious stones.

However recovering any Antarctic mineral resources for commercial purposes is currently forbidden.

The research is published in the journal Nature Communications.

Diamonds are formed from pure carbon under extreme heat and pressure at depths of about 150km in the Earth's crust.

WHO: Daily sugar intake 'should be halved'

People will be advised to halve the amount of sugar in their diet, under new World Health Organization guidance.

The recommended sugar intake will stay at below 10% of total calorie intake a day, with 5% the target, says the WHO.

The suggested limits apply to all sugars added to food, as well as sugar naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit concentrates.

UK campaigners say it is a "tragedy" that the WHO has taken 10 years to think about changing its advice.

The recommendation that sugar should account for no more than 10% of the calories in the diet, was passed in 2002.It works out at about 50g a day for an adult of normal weight, said the WHO.It is a tragedy that it has taken 10 years for the WHO to think about changing their recommendation on sugar”

However, a number of experts now think 10% is too high, amid rising obesity levels around the world.

Announcing the new draft measures, the WHO said in a statement: "WHO's current recommendation, from 2002, is that sugars should make up less than 10% of total energy intake per day.

"The new draft guideline also proposes that sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake per day.

"It further suggests that a reduction to below 5% of total energy intake per day would have additional benefits."

Dr Francesco Branca, WHO's nutrition director, told a news conference that the 10% target was a "strong recommendation" while the 5% target was "conditional", based on current evidence."We should aim for 5% if we can," he added.

The plans will now go for public consultation, with firm recommendations expected this summer..

N.H.Khider

Source: BBC

Iron Deficiency May Increase Stroke Risk Through Sticky Blood

Iron deficiency may increase stroke risk by making the blood more sticky, scientists have discovered. Every year, 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke. Nearly six million die and another five million are left permanently disabled. The most common type, ischaemic stroke, occurs because the blood supply to the brain is interrupted by small clots. In the last few years, several studies have shown that iron deficiency, which affects around two billion people worldwide, may be a risk factor for ischaemic stroke in adults and in children.

Iron deficiency can increase the stickiness of blood cells called platelets, which initiate clotting.

Scientists at Imperial College London have discovered that iron deficiency may increase stroke risk by making the blood more sticky. The findings, published in the journal PLOS ONE, could ultimately help with stroke prevention.

Every year, 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke. Nearly six million die and another five million are left permanently disabled. The most common type, ischaemic stroke, occurs because the blood supply to the brain is interrupted by small clots.

In the last few years, several studies have shown that iron deficiency, which affects around two billion people worldwide, may be a risk factor for ischaemic stroke in adults and in children. How iron deficiency could raise stroke risk has been a puzzle for researchers.

The Imperial team found that iron deficiency increases the stickiness of small blood cells called platelets, which initiate blood clotting when they stick together. Although a link between iron deficiency and sticky platelets was first discovered almost 40 years ago.

The researchers studied a group of patients with a rare disease called hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) that often leads to enlarged blood vessels in the lungs, similar to varicose veins. Normally, the lungs' blood vessels act as a filter to remove small clots before blood goes into arteries. In patients with abnormal lung vessels, blood is able to bypass the filter, so small blood clots can travel to the brain.

The patients in the study who were short of iron were more likely to have a stroke. In addition, the researchers looked at platelets in the lab and found that when they treated these with a substance that triggers clotting, platelets from people with low iron levels clumped together more quickly.

Dr Claire Shovlin, from the National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College London, said: "Since platelets in the blood stick together more if you are short of iron, we think this may explain why being short of iron can lead to strokes, though much more research will be needed to prove this link.

"The next step is to test whether we can reduce high-risk patients' chances of having a stroke by treating their iron deficiency. We will be able to look at whether their platelets become less sticky. There are many additional steps from a clot blocking a blood vessel to the final stroke developing, so it is still unclear just how important sticky platelets are to the overall process.

R.S

Source: ScienceDaily

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