Human brain TRIPLED in size

gradually over three million years as we developed culture, language, and the ability to make tools

The evolution of the human brain may have occurred far more gradually than previously believed, according to Daily Mail.

A new study on nearly 100 fossils from several different human species has found that brain size tripled over the course of the last three million years, in a process that was likely slow and consistent, as opposed to a series of 'step-like increases.'

New structure discovered in human sperm tails

A highly effective tail is needed in order for a sperm to be able to swim, and for a baby to be conceived. By using cryo-electron tomography, researchers have identified a completely new nanostructure inside sperm tails, according to Science Daily.

Human sperms are incredibly important for our reproduction. It would therefore be easy to assume that we have detailed knowledge of their appearance. However, an international team of researchers has now identified a completely new nanostructure inside sperm tails, thanks to the use of cryo-electron tomography.

"Since the cells are depicted frozen in ice, without the addition of chemicals which can obscure the smallest cell structures, even individual proteins inside the cell can be observed" explains Johanna Höög.

Water may be widespread on the moon after all

Water on the moon is widespread across its surface and appears to be present at all times of the lunar day, according to a new analysis of two lunar missions.

The new evidence contradicts previous research suggesting water was confined to certain areas and depended on lunar days. “We find that it doesn’t matter what time of day or which latitude we look at, the signal indicating water always seems to be present,” said Joshua Bandfield, a senior research scientist with the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado, according to RT.

Mind-reading algorithm uses EEG data to reconstruct images based on what we perceive

A new technique developed by neuroscientists can, for the first time, reconstruct images of what people perceive based on their brain activity gathered by EEG, according to Science Daily.

The technique developed by Dan Nemrodov, a postdoctoral fellow in Assistant Professor Adrian Nestor's lab, is able to digitally reconstruct images seen by test subjects based on electroencephalography (EEG) data.

"When we see something, our brain creates a mental percept, which is essentially a mental impression of that thing. We were able to capture this percept using EEG to get a direct illustration of what's happening in the brain during this process," says Nemrodov.

Alzheimer's disease reversed in mouse model

A team of researchers have found that gradually depleting an enzyme called BACE1 completely reverses the formation of amyloid plaques in the brains of mice with Alzheimer's disease, thereby improving the animals' cognitive function. The study raises hopes that drugs targeting this enzyme will be able to successfully treat Alzheimer's disease in humans, according to Science Daily.

One of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease is an abnormal buildup of beta-amyloid peptide, which can form large, amyloid plaques in the brain and disrupt the function of neuronal synapses. Also known as beta-secretase, BACE1 helps produce beta-amyloid peptide by cleaving amyloid precursor protein (APP). Drugs that inhibit BACE1 are therefore being developed as potential Alzheimer's disease treatments but, because BACE1 controls many important processes by cleaving proteins other than APP, these drugs could have serious side effects.

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