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Study Reveals the Face of Sleep Deprivation

A new study finds that sleep deprivation affects facial features such as the eyes, mouth and skin, and these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people.

Results show that the faces of sleep-deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes and darker circles under the eyes. Sleep deprivation also was associated with paler skin, more wrinkles or fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth. People also looked sadder when sleep-deprived than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued.

"Since faces contain a lot of information on which humans base their interactions with each other, how fatigued a person appears may affect how others behave toward them," said Tina Sundelin, MSc, lead author and doctoral student in the department of psychology at Stockholm University in Stockholm, Sweden. "This is relevant not only for private social interactions, but also official ones such as with health care professionals and in public safety."

The study, which appears in the September issue of the journal Sleep, was conducted at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. Ten subjects were photographed on two separate occasions: after eight hours of normal sleep and after 31 hours of sleep deprivation. The photographs were taken in the laboratory at 2:30 p.m. on both occasions. Forty participants rated the 20 facial photographs with respect to 10 facial cues, fatigue and sadness.

According to the authors, face perception involves a specialized neuronal network and is one of the most developed visual perceptual skills in humans. Facial appearance can affect judgments of attributes such as trustworthiness, aggressiveness and competence.

Source : Science Daily

N.H.Khider

Stroke Risk Similar Among Men and Women Smokers Worldwide

 

 

 

Smoking cigarettes may cause similar stroke risks for men and women, but women smokers may be at greater risk for a more deadly and uncommon type of stroke, according to new research in the American Heart Association journal Stroke.

When compared to non-smokers of the same gender, smoking increases the risk of having any type of stroke by 60 to 80 percent in women and men.

Researchers said the finding is intriguing because other studies have found strong evidence that smoking conveys a much higher risk of heart disease -- which shares a common disease process with stroke -- for women than for men.

Researchers compared data from more than 80 international studies that were published between 1966 and 2013. They found that smoking is linked to more than a 50 percent greater risk of ischemic stroke the most common stroke -- one that's caused by a blood clot- in both men and women. However, for the more deadly type of stroke -- one that is caused by a brain bleed, known as a hemorrhagic stroke -- smoking resulted in a 17 percent greater risk in women than in men.

Moreover, compared to men who smoke, the risk for women who smoke was about 10 percent higher in Western countries -- possibly reflecting a greater cumulative exposure to smoking -- than in Asian countries.

The study also found evidence that men and women who smoke can significantly reduce their stroke risk by quitting smoking.

Researchers suggested that the greater risk for bleeding stroke among women might be due to hormones and how nicotine impacts blood fats. It seems that fats, cholesterol and triglycerides increase to a greater extent in women who smoke compared with men who smoke, increasing their risk for coronary heart disease to a greater extent than in male smokers.

"Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for stroke for both men and women, but fortunately, quitting smoking is a highly effective way to lower your stroke risk," said Rachel Huxley, lead author of the study and Professor, School of Population Health, University of Queensland, in Brisbane, Australia. "Tobacco control policies should be a mainstay of primary stroke prevention programs.

Source : Science daily

N.H.Khider

 

 

 

Short walks 'could cut diabetes risk in older people'

Walking for 15 minutes after meals could prevent "potentially damaging" blood sugar spikes

A 15-minute walk after each meal could prevent older people developing type-2 diabetes, a study has found.

The post-meal walks control blood sugar as well as one long walk, research by George Washington University suggested.

Elevated blood sugar after meals could increase the risk of type-2 diabetes, so resting after eating "is the worst thing you can do", the study said.

Diabetes UK said there were "small differences" between exercise routines - but any activity was beneficial.

The US study was the first to test short bouts of exercise in the "risky period" following meals, when blood sugar can rise rapidly, lead author Loretta DiPietro said.

'Blunting effect'

She said high blood sugar after meals was a key risk factor in the progression from impaired glucose tolerance - what the study called "pre-diabetes" - to type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

The study found three 15-minute walks were as effective at reducing blood sugar over a 24-hour period as one 45-minute walk of the same "easy-to-moderate" pace.

But walking after food was "significantly more effective" at "blunting the potentially damaging elevations in post-meal blood sugar commonly observed in older people".

The important take-home message is that doing any physical activity, even at a low intensity, is good for you.”

Dr Matthew Hobbs Head of research, Diabetes UK

Older people may be "particularly susceptible" to poor blood sugar control after meals due to insulin resistance in the muscles and slow or low insulin secretion from the pancreas, the researchers said.

They found the best time to walk was after the evening meal, which is often the largest of the day and therefore causes the greatest rise in blood sugar.

More research needed

This increase often lasted "well into the night and early morning", the study found, but it was "curbed significantly" as soon as people started to walk.

Researchers studied 10 people aged 60 and over who were at risk of developing type-2 diabetes due to higher-than-normal levels of fasting blood sugar and insufficient physical activity.

Dr DiPietro said the findings could lead to an "inexpensive strategy" for preventing type-2 diabetes, but said the results must be confirmed by larger trials.

Weight loss and exercise are widely accepted as key ways to prevent type-2 diabetes, which occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body's cells do not react to insulin.

Diabetes UK estimates there are up to seven million UK people at "high risk" of developing type-2 diabetes.

Dr Matthew Hobbs, the charity's head of research, said the study reinforced the message that exercise was "extremely important" to reduce the risk.

Talking about the comparison between one 45-minute walk and three 15-minute walks after meals, he added: "Although there were some small differences, the important take-home message is that doing any physical activity, even at a low intensity, is good for you

Source : BBC

N.H.Khider

Honey

The dangers of sugar have been so widely publicized that many people mistakenly think anything "sweet" equals bad news for the body. While refined sugar is indeed harmful, if not toxic, to your health, nature provides a wonderfully delicious array of natural sugars found in fruits, root vegetables and honey that nourish the body and promote good health.

Getting back to the rich abundance of nature, especially when it comes to the health benefits of honey, is one of the simplest, yet most powerful ways to protect your body. As Hippocrates said: “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.”

When using sweetener, always reach for raw, organic honey in order to reap the most benefits. Here are 6 delicious ways that honey improves your health:

. It boosts your immune system.1

Raw, organic honey is loaded with vitamins, minerals, and enzymes which protect the body from bacteria and boost the immune system. Cold and flu symptoms, such as coughs, sore throats, and congestion are also kept at bay when treated with honey.

To improve your immune system, add 1-2 tablespoons of honey to warm water daily. For an extra boost, add fresh lemon juice and a dash of cinnamon.

. It helps you lose weight.2

Drinking warm water with lemon and honey on an empty stomach, first thing in the morning.Doing this on a daily basis is one of the best ways to cleanse the liver, remove toxins, and flush fat from the body.

For optimal benefits, add 1 tablespoon of honey plus the juice of one lemon to warm water every morning before breakfast. This is a very soothing and satisfying drink to end the day with, as well .

. It reduces the risk of heart disease.3

Honey mixed with cinnamon has been shown to revitalize the arteries and veins of the heart and reduce cholesterol in the blood by up to 10%. When taken on a regular basis, this honey-cinnamon mixture may reduce the risk of heart attacks and stop another from occurring in people who have already suffered one.

Add 1-2 tablespoons of honey with 1/3 teaspoon of cinnamon to warm water, then drink daily.

. It soothes indigestion. 4

For those who suffer from indigestion, the antiseptic properties of honey relieve acidity in the stomach and alleviate digestion. Honey also neutralizes gas, becoming the ultimate stomach soother when it comes to overeating.

One or two tablespoons of honey before heavy meals is the best way to thwart indigestion, and if you’ve already overindulged, add honey and lemon to warm water to help move food through the digestive track.

. It bolsters your energy levels.5

The natural sugars in honey provide a healthy source of calories and energy for the body. Plus, using honey for an energy boost also answers the human body’s innate craving for something sweet.

Fight fatigue with nature’s answer to low energy. Instead of reaching for coffee, cakes, or chocolate to get you through an energy slump, try reaching for a tablespoon of raw, organic honey instead.

. It clears up your skin.6

Due to its anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties, honey is the ultimate organic skincare brand. Apply a dab of raw, organic honey directly to blemishes, and let the skin absorb its medicinal properties overnight. Wash it off in the morning, and after regular use, you’ll wake up to clear skin!

Honey is also an effective treatment for other skin conditions, such as eczema, ring worm, and psoriasis. Though honey does not CURE these conditions, it does soothe inflammation and relieve dryness

Source : Mind Body Green

N.H.Khider

Antioxidants Are Unlikely To Prevent Aging, Study Suggests

Diets and beauty products which claim to have anti-oxidant properties are unlikely to prevent aging, according to research funded by the Wellcome Trust. Researchers at the Institute of Healthy aging at UCL (University College London) say this is because a key fifty year old theory about the causes of aging is wrong.

"Superoxide" free radicals – oxygen molecules that have an imbalance of electrons to protons – are generated in the body through natural processes such as metabolism. These free radicals can cause oxidation in the body, analogous to rust when iron is exposed to oxygen. Biological systems, such as the human body, are usually able to restrict or repair this damage.

In 1956, Denham Harman proposed the theory that aging is caused by an accumulation of molecular damage caused by "oxidative stress", the action of reactive forms of oxygen, such as superoxide, on cells. This theory has dominated the field of aging research for over fifty years. But now, a study published online today in the journal Genes & Development suggests that this theory is probably incorrect and that superoxide is not a major cause of aging.

"The fact is that we don't understand much about the fundamental mechanisms of aging," says Dr David Gems from UCL. "The free radical theory of aging has filled a knowledge vacuum for over fifty years now, but it just doesn't stand up to the evidence."

Dr Gems and colleagues at the Institute of Healthy aging studied the action of key genes involved in removing superoxide from the bodies of the nematode worm C. elegans, a commonly-used model for research into aging. By manipulating these genes, they were able to control the worm's ability to "mop up" surplus superoxide and limit potential damage caused by oxidation.

Contrary to the result predicted by the free radical theory of aging, the researchers found that the lifespan of the worm was relatively unaffected by its ability to tackle the surplus superoxide. The findings, combined with similar recent findings from the University of Texas using mice, imply that this theory is incorrect.

"One of the hallmarks of aging is the accumulation of molecular damage, but what causes this damage?" says Dr Gems. "It's clear that if superoxide is involved, it only plays a small part in the story. Oxidative damage is clearly not a universal, major driver of the aging process. Other factors, such as chemical reactions involving sugars in our body, clearly play a role."

Dr Gems believes the study suggests that anti-aging products which claim to have anti-oxidant properties are unlikely to have any effect.

"A healthy, balanced diet is very important for reducing the risk of developing many diseases associated with old age, such as cancer, diabetes and osteoporosis," he says. "But there is no clear evidence that dietary antioxidants can slow or prevent aging. There is even less evidence to support the claims of most anti-aging products."

The research was welcomed by Dr Alan Schafer, Head of Molecular and Physiological Sciences at the Wellcome Trust.

"With increasing lifespan comes greater exposure and vulnerability to the aging process," comments Dr Schafer. "Research such as this points to how much we have to learn about aging, and the importance of understanding the mechanisms behind this process. This new study will encourage researchers to explore new avenues in aging research.

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Soure :Science daily