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Wind turbines put robins at risk as their low-frequency hum plays havoc with festive favourite bird’s survival tactics

As a fiercely bird, the robin has found a clever way to frighten off enemies – using lower notes in its song to sound bigger.

The low-frequency buzz of wind turbine blades means that when it feels threatened, the robin has to sing at a higher pitch to make itself heard – and this might not put off a potential rival, according to Daily Mail.

Researchers fear if robins are then more likely to get in a fight, the bird’s population could be hit through injuries and reduced breeding.

Scientists at Newcastle University played three sets of birds the sound of a rival robin, the sound of a turbine or the two combined.

One, two, BEE, four, five! Scientists discover the honey-loving insect can count using only four brain cells

Bee brains have evolved to be so energy efficient that they may be able to count using only four nerve cells, scientists have found. 

Simulations with a brain model used just four nerve cells and found this simplistic organ would be able to count up to, and beyond, five, according to Daily Mail.   

The small number of nerve cells needed to count indicates that brain size is not as important as brain organisation, scientists claim. 

Simulations showed the simple brain was capable of counting small quantities by closely studying one item at a time.

Previous studies have found bees count in the same way. 

Remains of insects that lived 130 million years ago reveal how they emerged from their shell

Four pin-sized insects that lived 130 million years ago and were killed by tree resin immediately after hatching have been found in a chunk of Lebanese amber.   

The discovery marks the first ever fossilised evidence of the short-lived tool the bugs used to break free from their shell, known as 'egg bursters, according to Daily Mail'. 

Scientists aren't sure exactly how the creatures died but their rapid entrapment sheds new light on the evolutionary history of ancient bugs. 

Many modern-day insects still employ 'egg bursters' to break free of their shell but they rapidly disappear once the animal has exited. 

Small changes in oxygen levels have big implications for ocean life

 Oceanographers at the University of Rhode Island have found that even slight levels of ocean oxygen loss, or deoxygenation, have big consequences for tiny marine organisms called zooplankton, according to Science Daily .

Zooplankton are important components of the food web in the expanse of deep, open ocean called the midwater. Within this slice of ocean below the surface and above the seafloor are oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), large regions of very low oxygen. Unlike coastal "dead zones" where oxygen levels can suddenly plummet and kill marine life not acclimated to the conditions, zooplankton in OMZs are specially adapted to live where other organisms -- especially predators -- cannot. But OMZs are expanding due to climate change, and even slight changes to the low oxygen levels can push zooplankton beyond their extraordinary physiological limits.

Why deep oceans gave rise to the first complex organisms on Earth: Stable temperatures let early life forms make the best of limited oxygen supplies

For billions of years life on Earth was microscopic.

However, around 570 million years ago that all changed as complex organisms including animals with soft, sponge-like bodies sprang to life deep in the ocean.

Scientists have long been baffled as to why organisms first appeared deep in the ocean where light and food are scarce, according to Daily Mail.

A new study has found that stable temperatures were key to survival as these early lifeforms were unable to deal with fluctuations in temperature.