Syria is facing a global war and a takfiri thinking




In its Monday edition, al-Akhbar Lebanese daily stated that the Salafist group fighters were killed in Tal Sireen in their way to the Syrian town of Tal Kalakh, and that others in the group had been wounded.

The daily's source mentioned that the men planned to take a smugglers' route from the Lebanese village of Hleit to Qalaat al-Hosn in Syria after dawn prayers Friday. The group fell into an ambush in Tal Sireen, on the way to Qalaat al-Hasan.

The source added "the young men, ranging in age from 18 to 25, went to Syria at the request of Kh. M., of Fatah al-Islam leaders.”

(Using children and minors in wars are considered war crimes and this is what the terrorist FSA is doing while the world is silent as per their practices).

"The leader was released recently and he moved to Syria to fight alongside with the opposition(al-Qaeda and Doha coalition),"In the mean time, they noted that "he established what looks like an "Islamic" emirate in the area located near the city of Homs."The source continued that people close to Kh.M previously organized groups to be sent to Syria, based on his so-called "Jihad".

"Several individuals were sent for this purpose, before they send such a large number of young men at once."

 A remarkable position emerged from the family of Khodar Alam Dein, was killed in the ambush, Alam Dein's father did n’t know that his son was going to Syria to kill his brothers, he condemned "the misleading extremist groups, scattered in the North, of his son's blood."

The man who knew nothing of his son's plans, demanded accountability for those who tampered with the mind of his son and his friends.

"If my son wanted to fight the "Israelis", I would have sent him myself. But to take him to participate in a conspiracy against our countries, it is not permissible," the father confirmed.

Moreover, al-Akhbar reported that a battalion known as "al-Wadi [Valley] battalion consists of hundreds of fighters, mostly Lebanese."

"This armed group is led by a Syrian defector officer known as Abdul Salam H., who has good relations with a Northern Lebanese MP in terms of funding, coordination and receiving the arrivals," the source reported.

However, according to well-informed sources, the issue of entry and exit of fighters was, and is still the responsibility of a man, who belongs to al-Hujairi family, known as the Sheikh Abu Taia [hat].

"There are several Lebanese groups that infiltare into Syria periodically," they revealed, and noted that "among the most prominent people who recently joined the Syrian rebels are the most dangerious detainees who escaped from Roumieh prison last August."

Similarly, al-Akhbar unveiled that "Shadi al-Mawlawi, the young man who was stopped by the Lebanese Security Forces a few months ago, and then released under the pressure of Tripoli's militants is among the Lebanese fighters in Syria."


Source: al-Akhbar daily,  Edited by B.N





What do they want from Syria?




A general view of the scene of a car bomb explosion in Jaramana, a mainly Christian and Druze suburb of Damascus, on November 28, 2012“What do they want from Jaramana? The town brings together people from all over Syria and welcomes everybody.” These were the anguished words of one distraught resident in the Syrian town of Jaramana that was devastated by multiple deadly explosions this week.

The death toll has yet to be confirmed. Early reports on the blasts said 34 were killed. Later, the toll was put at more than 50, with over 120 injured, many critical. All of the victims were civilian.

Over the past 20 months, Syria has witnessed dozens of massacres and horrific car bombings in its capital Damascus and in other cities and countless villages across the country. But the latest atrocity in Jaramana, located close to the capital, is distinguishable perhaps because it most clearly shows the vile Machiavellian mentality of the perpetrators in their broader strategy towards the Middle Eastern country.

As the words of the shell-shocked resident above indicate, Jaramana can be seen as an exemplar of the pluralist nature of the Syrian society, “welcoming everybody”. The town is particularly known for its Christian and Druze Muslim communities, who by all accounts have coexisted peacefully for centuries. The populace is also largely supportive of the Syrian government of President Bashar al-Assad.

This Wednesday morning, as workers, mothers and school children were going about their usual daily routine, two massive no-warning explosions ripped through the heart of Jaramana. The second blast was detonated minutes after the first one when bystanders were rushing to the scene to aid the wounded. The heinous calculation of the perpetrators was to maximise the killing and suffering.

 “What do they want from Jaramana?” The answer is revealed in the resident’s subsequent words: “The town brings together people from all over Syria and welcomes everybody.”

The terrorist war on Syria, which the Western media trumpet as a “pro-democracy uprising”, is aimed at precisely the opposite of pluralist coexistence. What the terrorists want is to tear the tolerant soul out of the country and plunge its people into an internecine, hate-filled sectarian bloodbath.

The targeting of Jaramana is a deliberate, brutal calculation to precipitate such a bloodbath. The town has been inflicted with several similar, although less deadly, bombings in recent months. On 29 October, a car bomb killed 11 people.

There are no military or state security installations in Jaramana. As noted, it is a urban district known for its tolerance towards mixed religions and cultural heritage. But, for the terrorists and their fiendish mentality, that civic virtue made Jaramana a prime target.

The armed militants in Syria are driven by Sunni extremists of Wahhabist or Salafist tendencies, who see pluralist coexistence of Sunni, Shia, Alawite, Druze, Christian, Jews and non-believers as anathema to their demented puritanical ideology.

Other elements within the Syrian armed militant groups would appear to be simply “soldiers of fortune” – mercenaries and criminal opportunists who have no particular religious affiliation.

However, taken together, these various militant factions are united by one criminal goal: to smash Syria, ruthlessly and recklessly.

The Syrian society, as it currently exists with its emphasis on secular pluralism, must be destroyed at all costs by these extremists and criminal opportunists. The most effective way to sabotage Syria is to unleash a sectarian bloodbath and to pit communities at each other’s throats. That will ensure the collapse of the central government and the splintering of society into sects. In this intended milieu of violence, chaos and fear, Syria will then be at the mercy of those who want to dominate this proud, historic country.

    The enemies are well known. Western governments have had their knives out for Syria over many years, seeing it as a strategic obstacle of popular resistance to Western imperialism and Zionism in the Middle East. The Sunni regimes of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Turkey and latterly Egypt under Mohammed Morsi want to see Syria roped into their camp, with the added appeal of undermining Iran’s regional influence.

Saudi Arabia’s autocrats are particularly obsessed with defeating what they perceive jealously as the Shia Crescent represented by Iran, Syria and Lebanon’s Hezbollah. Both of these agenda converge on the objective of isolating Iran and setting up the Islamic Republic for an all-out military assault.

Syria is therefore a crucial geopolitical prize for the West and its regional allies. The supposed advocacy of democratic reforms by Western governments and their corporate media mouthpieces is of course a cynical cover for their criminal imperialist agenda. That particular ridiculous lie is exposed by the West’s collusion with the most repressive dictatorial regimes on the planet – the Persian Gulf monarchies – in “liberating” Syria.

Also, if Saudi Arabia and Qatar are so concerned about the welfare of their Arab Muslim brothers in Syria, why aren’t these supposedly chivalrous monarchs sending weapons and fighters to help the besieged Palestinian people of Gaza?

A measure of the Syrian prize is the criminal lengths to which the enemies of Syria are willing to go in order to vanquish the country and install their self-styled regime.

    The massacres of families and children in villages like Houla and Qubair; the cold-blooded execution of civilians forced to kneel before their killers; and the callous bombing of civilians as seen this week in Jaramana are techniques of terror that the Western governments and their allies have perfected elsewhere over several decades. The Americans used such demonic scientific terrorism in Central America; the French in North Africa; and the British in East Africa and more recently in Northern Ireland.

Syria is witnessing the worst of all possible criminal assaults – the evolution and amalgamation of Western state terrorism fuelled with the petrodollars of mindless Arab despots.

Adding to the abomination, many of the crimes in Syria have been filmed by the perpetrators and subsequently released claiming that they were the action of government forces. One incident was the explosive demolition of a mosque by the mercenaries in Aleppo, who were filmed laughing at their war crime. Western media claimed it was the Syrian national army, only for it to emerge that it was actually the members of the so-called Free Syrian Army.

Recent claims that the Syrian armed forces are using cluster bombs to kill children have been given the usual Western media prominence. But given the track record of the Western-backed mercenaries and the Western propaganda machine, the weight of suspicion surely lies on them.

Within hours of the mass murder of the innocents in Jaramana, the United Nations General Assembly in New York adopted a draft resolution condemning the Syrian government for what it called “widespread human rights abuses”.

The condemnation was co-sponsored by the United States, Britain, France, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Turkey – the very sponsors of Western state terrorism plunging the Syrian people into a bloodbath. The UN stands as an institution that is not just a debased propaganda tool, it is a propaganda tool splattered with the blood of innocents.

Source: nsnbc




Terrorists target Syrian Internet, Telephones and Journalists




Syrians in Syria as well as abroad became seriously concerned when all telephone and internet connections were disconnected at 12 o´clock CET. The websites of the Syrian Arab News Agency SANA and other Syrian media have been targeted for months but the sudden and total blackout was unprecedented and caused widespread speculation.

According to some sources the blackout could have been an initiative by the Syrian government acting on concerns that some explosive devices might be triggered by cell phones or internet. Others speculated that NATO had begun implementing a plan to substitute Syrian radio and TV with false news in preparation of a coup. Plans for such initiative had been discussed in relation to the two failed attempts to conquer the city of Aleppo as the seat of a foreign backed transitional government.

According to a nsnbc contact who arrived in Turkey from Syria today the explanation for the blackout was that terrorists had managed to sever the main internet and mobile phone towers cables, effectively rendering most of Syria without internet and cell phone connection.

Terrorists also targeted PRESS TV and Al-Alam TV. A bomb blast near the TV stations offices in Aleppo caused structural damage to buildings and destroyed several of the two TV stations vehicles. Nobody was killed during the attack.

Journalists from PRESS TV and AL-Alam have been systematically targeted for months. On 26 September PRESS TV and Al-Alam journalist Maya Naser was killed by snipers after he and Al-Alam´s Syrian station chief Hossein Mortada rushed to the scene of two explosions. Hossein Mortada survived the attack but had to be hospitalized and treated for his injuries. According to nsnbc sources the assassins had been deployed already two hours prior to the bomb blasts.

During the last week before his assassination Maya Naser was working on an investigation which documented that the Turkish Freedom and Justice Party (AKP) of Prime Minister R. Tayyip Erdogan released convicts who were sentenced for terrorism to deploy them to fight as insurgents in Syria. Hossein Mortada has received countless death threats and he has survived several attempts on his life.

The Syrian government has held several Western and Arab nations governments  responsible for the killing of journalists in Syria.

While there is an element of plausible deniability related to the use of foreign backed terrorists to censor unwanted media reports the criminality of the belligerent parties does not stop there.  The Arab League violated at least four U.N. Resolutions when it caused Arabsat and Nilesat to cease carrying satellite signals from Syrian Radio and TV stations.

According to RT reports the hacker group Anonymous should have taken responsibility for hacking Syrian government websites because the Syrian government has shut down internet and phone services. It is very unlikely that the report is correct. If Anonymous actually is playing a role in the attack on Syria it is most likely because it has been co-opted.

Who ever is behind the attack, the strategy to prevent Syrians from use of mobile phones and the internet seems to be a self-defeating strategy if the intention is to win the hearts and minds of the Syrian people. It remains to see whether the targeting of the Syrian internet and telephone systems will be a precursor of a coordinated campaign against Syria.

Until internet and phone connections have been reestablished, the safest way to access information about Syria would be through media like PRESS TV, Al-Alam TV or independent media such as nsnbc, The 4th Media and others.

Source: nsnbc




Aleppo as an Islamic Emirate – the “Jihadists” Goal




Al-Watan Syrian newspaper quoted civilians who left their homes in Daria city of Damascus countryside that their city turned into a stronghold for the terrorists who came from several areas in Damascus countryside to carry out the Battle of Damascus.

The residents confirmed that most of the insurgents are foreigners who were wearing the symbol of al-Qaeda and have heavy armoury and mortar launchers.

The newspaper pointed out that the militants are about 2000-4000 fighters who entered large quantity of explosives, booby-trapped roads and buildings and barricaded in houses that they broke in earlier.

The newspaper also stated that the Syrian Army has surrounded the city and started moving forward through its four axises, causing large losses of the militants.

“The bodies of fighters are all over the city” the newspaper wrote, “lots of the corpses were burned, where other militants are still barricading in buildings, mosques and governmental institutions”

The newspaper added that the Syrian Army is predicted to settle the battle in the next few days after removing explosive charges and secure the roads in the city.

“Al-Watan” said that the Syrian Army has a new strategy in its current battle that includes attracting lots of terrorists inside the city and eliminating them.

About Aleppo, the newspaper said that the Islamic groups that link with al-Qaeda have strengthened in their positions in several neighborhoods of Aleppo city.

“The Islamists hold sway over the city after Arab and foreign “Jihadists” entered, attempting to make the city an Islamic emirate” the newspaper stated.





How Qatar Became a Francophone Country




There was a time when most French couldn’t place Qatar on a map. Now, Qatar – a small Gulf state with marginal ties to French culture – is a member of an international Francophone organization. Some have raised eyebrows at Qatar’s new Francophone identity since it has just expelled the director of a secular French lycée from its borders.

At the beginning of 2010, a Qatari prince decided to renovate a 17th century Parisian hotel he had recently purchased. However, after a few months of work, an organization that protects French heritage took Qatar to court to stop the project.

Tensions between the French administrators and their Qatari counterparts have mounted as local authorities pressed for changes in the curriculum and its principles, which have been in place since 1902.It turns out that the Qatari prince wanted to make radical changes to the historic building, such as constructing a car elevator from the parking garage directly to the rooms. The renovation plan also intended to remove an 18th century heater and replace it with modern bathroom facilities.

The renovation was not completely stopped, but the French Ministry of Culture, a heritage preservation group, and the courts came to an agreement with the prince to temper his ambitious renovation plans. Yet in the end, official French instructions dictated that the prince’s project be accommodated.

This is but a small example of what is happening today between Qatar and the French educational mission that was sent to the small Gulf state to run the new lycée (French school) in Doha. Tensions between the French administrators and their Qatari counterparts have mounted as local authorities pressed for changes in the curriculum and its principles, which have been in place since 1902.

The school – Lycée Voltaire – was opened in 2008 by then president Nicolas Sarkozy, under the auspices of Mission Laïque Française (MLF), a non-profit organization that establishes and runs French schools abroad in coordination with the Ministry of Education.

At the time, the French agreed – with the blessings of Sarkozy – to Qatari conditions that the school be run by administrators from both countries, with a Qatari appointed as president of the school’s administrative council. However, after a few years – when the student body had reached 700 pupils – the Qataris began interfering in the school curriculum, and in such a way that conflicts with the identity and mission of the MLF.

In 2011, for example, trouble started with the removal of a history book used in certain grade levels “due to it containing a chapter on Christianity in the Middle Ages,” according to Qatari officials.

In 2011, for example, trouble started with the removal of a history book used in certain grade levels “due to it containing a chapter on Christianity in the Middle Ages,” according to Qatari officials. More recently, the Arabic language textbook used in all classes was pulled and replaced with a book that teaches both Arabic and Islam together. When French teachers and school officials complained to their education ministry, the latter decided to relieve the French director, Frank Chouinard, of his duties.

 The French weekly Le Nouvel Observateur confirmed that the MLF will be leaving the emirate at the end of next month. Le Figaro added, “Financial complications between the Qatari and the French sides led Qatar to terminate MLF’s financial and administrative authority a month ago.”

For its part, the French embassy in Qatar released a statement on Tuesday, stating, “The director of Lycée Voltaire has left his post as director after a dispute with the Qatari side of the administration and will be departing from the emirate soon.”

The statement continued, “The school will continue its operations in Doha, with the support of France, in cooperation with Qatari officials.”

The Lycée Voltaire affair has come at a time of mounting controversy in France about French-Qatari relations as a whole, especially after the oil-rich emirate was inducted into France’s international cultural organization, the International Organization of the Francophonie (IOF).

Buying a Francophone Identity

“Forty years ago, Qatar was nothing more than a pile of sand with a little oil in the eyes of the French,” a diplomat recalled in an interview with Le Point magazine. “Five years ago, most of the French did not even know where Qatar is located on a map,” another said.

Many people in France – who are not benefitting financially from Qatar’s largesse – realize that the rich emirate’s money-fueled invasion of their country will inevitably have some sort of negative impact on their republic.

Qatar today is one of the largest investors in France, buying up significant shares in a wide variety of sectors, including the media, sports, communication, energy, and luxury brands. It has even bought itself a seat in the IOF.

Meanwhile, frustrated IOF officials pointed out that Qatar was not even a Francophone country to begin with to deserve directly becoming a member-state. Qatar became a Francophone country with a blink of an eye. Without fulfilling any of the conditions to become part of the organization, the IOF gladly obliged the emir’s request and officially inducted Qatar as a full “member-state” last month.

This caused quite an uproar within the IOF and the French media, especially in light of the fact that Qatar was immediately accepted as member-state, without having to go through the “observer” stage that many of the new inductees had to go through.

Some news sources reported that Qatar “created a pressure group within the IOF – particularly among some African countries – to support its membership bid.” Meanwhile, frustrated IOF officials pointed out that Qatar was not even a Francophone country to begin with to deserve directly becoming a member-state.

But a spokesperson for the French Foreign Ministry begged to differ. “There are fundamental reasons for including Qatar in the IOF,” the spokesperson said, such as Doha’s “inclusion of the French language into its official school curriculum at the beginning of this year, in addition to launching a French-speaking radio station.”

Some French pundits tied the two controversies together, with one commentator summing up the whole affair as follows: “Qatar expels a secular French educational mission from the country and reserves a seat in the IOF with support from some African countries, where [Qatar] is establishing religious schools that take the place of French ones.

Al-Akhbar Daily

By: Sabah Ayoub





The many faces of Sheikh Ahmad Moaz Al-Khatib




Completely unknown to the international public only a week ago, Sheikh Moaz al-Khatib has been catapulted to the presidency of the Syrian National Coalition, which represents pro-Western opposition in the Damascus government. Portrayed by an intense public relations campaign as a highly moral personality with no partisan or economic attachments, he is in truth a member of the Muslim Brotherhood and an executive of the Shell oil company.

The dislocation of the armed Syrian opposition is a reflection of the conflict between the various States which are trying to "change the regime" in Damascus.

We should pay particular attention to the Syrian National Council (SNC), also known as the Istanbul Council, since it was instituted there. This council is guided with an iron hand by the French DGSE (Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure), and financed by Qatar. Its members, who have obtained residency and various other privileges in France, are under constant pressure from the secret services, who dictate every declaration they make.

The Local Coordination Committees (LCC) represent those local civilians who support armed action.

Finally, the Free Syrian Army (FSA), which is principally managed by Turkey, unites most of the combatants, including the Al-Qaida brigades. 80% of these units recognize the Takfirist Sheikh Adnan Al-Arour as their spiritual leader. He is based in Saudi Arabia.

Seeking to regain leadership and bring a little order to this cacophony, Washington ordered the Arab League to call a meeting in Doha, sabotaged the SNC, and obliged as many of the tiny groups as possible to integrate a single and exclusive structure – the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. Behind the scenes, ambassador Robert S. Ford himself allotted the seats and privileges for this assembly, and has imposed as President of the Coalition a personality who has never yet been mentioned in the Press - Sheikh Ahmad Moaz Al-Khatib.

Robert S. Ford is considered to be the State Department’s principal specialist for the Middle East. He was the assistant of John Negroponte from 2004 to 2006, while this master spy was busy applying in Iraq the methods he had developed in Honduras – the intensive use of death squads and Contras. Shortly before the events in Syria began, Ford was nominated as Ambassador to Damascus, and assumed his functions despite Senate opposition. He immediately applied the Negroponte method to Syria with obvious results.

While the creation of the National Coalition objectifies Washington’s take-over of the armed opposition, it does not solve the question of representivity. Very quickly, various components of the SLA withdrew. In particular, the Coalition excludes any form of opposition which is hostile to armed struggle, especially Haytham al-Manna’s National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change.

The choice of Sheikh Ahmad Moaz Al-Khatib responds to a clear necessity – in order for the President to be recognized by the combatants, he has to be religious figure, but in order to be accepted by Westerners, he has to appear moderate. And especially, in this period of intense negotiations, the new President has to have a solid understanding of the subject in order to discuss the future of Syrian gas - but this is not a subject to be introduced in public.

US spin doctors quickly gave Sheikh Ahmad Moaz Al-Khatib a make-over, dressing him in a suit but no tie. Some of the media speak of him as a "model" leader. For example, a major US daily newspaper presents him as "a unique product of his culture, like Aung San Suu Kyi in Burma" [1]

Here is the portrait of him drawn up by the Agence France Presse (AFP):

"Sheikh Ahmad Moaz Al-Khatib, the consensual man

Born in 1960, Sheikh Ahmad Moaz Al-Khatib is a moderate religious figure who was for a time the Imam of the Omayyad's mosque in Damascus. He belongs to no political party.

It is this independence, and his proximity to Riad Seif at the origin of the initiative for a wider coalition, which makes him a consensual candidate for the leadership of the opposition.

His background is in Sufi Islam. A religious dignitary, he has studied international relations and diplomacy, and is not linked to the Muslim Brotherhood or any other Islamist organization in the opposition.

Arrested several times in 2012 for having publicly called for the end of the regime in Damascus, he was forbidden to speak in Syrian mosques by order of the authorities, and found refuge in Qatar.

Born in Damascus, he played a decisive role in the mobilization of the suburbs of the capital, notably Douma, which was active from the very beginnings of the peaceful demonstrations in March 2011. "Sheikh al-Khatib is a consensual figure who enjoys true popular support on the ground", underlines Khaled al-Zeini, a member of the Syrian National Council." [2]

The truth is quite different.

In reality, there is absolutely no evidence that Sheikh Ahmad Moaz Al-Khatib ever studied international relations and diplomacy, but he does have training as an engineer in geophysics. He worked for six years for the al-Furat Petroleum Company (1985-91), a joint-venture between the national company and other foreign enterprises, including the Anglo-Dutch Shell, with whom he has maintained contact.

In 1992, he inherited the prestigious charge of preacher at the Omayyad's mosque from his father, Sheikh Mohammed Abu al-Faraj al-Khatib. He was rapidly relieved of his functions and forbidden to preach anywhere in Syria. However, this episode did not occur in 2012, and has nothing to do with the present contestation - it happened twenty years ago, under Hafez el-Assad. At that time, Syria was supporting the international intervention to liberate Kuwait, in respect of international law, in order to get rid of their Iraqi rival, and also to forge closer ties with the West. As for the Sheikh, he was opposed to "Desert Storm" for the same religious motives which were proclaimed by Oussama Ben Laden - with whom he aligned himself - notably the refusal of Western presence on Arab lands, which they consider sacrilegious. This position led him to deliver a number of anti-semitic and anti-Western diatribes.

Following that, the Sheikh continued his activity as a religious teacher, notably at the Dutch Institute in Damascus. He made numerous trips abroad, mainly to Holland, the United Kingdom and the United State. Finally, he settled in Qatar.

In 2003-04, during the attribution of oil and gas concessions, he returned to Syria as a lobbyist for the Shell group.

He came back to Syria again at the beginning of 2012, where he inflamed the neighbourhood of Douma (a suburb of Damascus). He was arrested, then pardoned, and left the country in July to settle in Cairo.

His family is indeed steeped in the Sufi tradition, but contrary to what the AFP claims, he is a member of the Muslim brotherhood, and declared this quite clearly at the end of his speech of investiture at Doha. According to the usual technique of the Brotherhood, he adapts not only the form, but also the content of his speeches to his audience. Sometimes leaning towards a multi-religious society, sometimes towards the restoration of sharia law. In his writings, he qualifies Jewish people as "enemies of God", and Chiite muslims as "rejectionist heretics", epithets which are the equivalent of a death sentence.

In the end, Ambassador Robert S. Ford has played his hand well - once again Washington has duped its allies. Just like in Libya, France has taken all the risks, but in the major compromises which are to come, Total will have gained no advantage.

By Thierry Meyssan





Mofaz: Hamas Has Upper Hand, Truce Mistake




Israeli opposition leader and Kadima chairman Shaul Mofaz slammed the truce between the Zionist entity and resistance in Gaza as a mistake, saying that Hamas had the upper hand.

“The army knows how to do its work, and we could have won this time. A cease-fire at this point is a mistake; this is not how a war against terror ends. Hamas has the upper hand,” the former Israeli cheif of staff wrote on his Facebook page.

“The goals of his operation were not reached, and the next round is only a matter of time,” he said, adding: “We should not have stopped at this stage. Hamas got stronger and we did not gain deterrence.”

Ceasefire took effect in Gaza on Wednesday at 21:00. The agreement was announced by Egyptian Foreign Minister Kamel Amr and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton during a press conference in Cairo.



Source: agencies